bantu noun classes


The Ojibwe language and other members of the Algonquian languages distinguish between animate and inanimate classes. 0000001027 00000 n Each noun belongs to a class, and each language may have several numbered classes, somewhat like … [9] The term "Bantu" as a name or the group was coined (as Bâ-ntu) by Wilhelm Bleek in 1857 or 1858, and popularised in his Comparative Grammar of 1862. There are three ways to display this in a dictionary: 1. All nouns belong to one of thirteen different classes. �ҩp*� 0000156412 00000 n 0000009848 00000 n Phonotactics of noun class disambiguation in Xhosa* Aaron Braver,1 Wm. Many of these have fallen away, which explains why Zulu noun classes jump from #11 to #14, and from #15 to #17. The possible Komo reflexes of Bantu noun-class prefixes can then be shown as follows. 0000005623 00000 n Uses plural of classes 6 and 10. Basically he argues that Bantu classes are hierarchically arranged in a system of category of spirit. Each class is either a singular or plural class, which brings the total number of arbitrary divisions closer to 10. Originally, Bantu languages had over 20 noun categories. Additionally, there are polyplural noun classes.A polyplural noun class is a plural class for more than one singular class. The word Bantu for the language families and its speakers is an artificial term based on the reconstructed Proto-Ntu term for “people” or “humans”. I thought I had found the right area under the heading "Grammatical Info. 63 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 65 /H [ 1214 646 ] /L 1197968 /E 241226 /N 19 /T 1196590 >> endobj xref 63 34 0000000016 00000 n Nyanja has several noun classes, which are categorised differently depending on the author. Because there is no verb conjugation, but instead verb construction, the noun classes tend to be the most difficult part of the language. 0000003156 00000 n 20 g ʊ and most don't have cl. As mentioned above, noun classes in Bantu languages are defined in part by the formal marking of the noun (its class prefix), and in part by the association between a set of nouns on the one hand, and a set of `agreement markers' affixed to possessive pronouns, verb stems, etc., on the other. Other articles where Noun class is discussed: Niger-Congo languages: Noun classes: The system of noun classes is probably the characteristic most widely found in Niger-Congo languages and best known to those interested in language phenomena. Bantu noun classes. 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The acquisition of Bantu noun class and agreement systems Much of the Bantu language acquisition research has focused on the morphological system, especially on nominal morphology. Italian, for example, has a group of nouns deriving from Latin neuter nouns that acts as masculine in the singular but feminine in the plural: il braccio/le braccia; l'uovo/le uova. Bantu noun classes normally group into 10 or more singular/plural pairings. Further, these noun classes are not only expressed on nouns and adjectives, but also on verbs, prepositions, and more. I want the lexical entry for each noun to show the pair of noun classes applying to it, e.g. List of Bantu language names with synonyms ordered by Guthrie number). (These nouns are still placed in a neuter gender of their own by some grammarians.). ��`*�G���������fh�]��L ��E�$ BdJ[B_`J���V��)J���)���˺ܔO�2���d��� and function of the attributive noun class prefixes in Bantu. 0000156490 00000 n There is no gender distinction. These missing classes do exist in other Bantu languages Each class has its own set of prefixes, named concords. There are 556 documented Bantu languages divided into 7 subgroups of varying sizes. Price: 200.00.Costs for postage and packing, and in some cases MOMS (VAT), will be added. Bantu noun classes has been argued for in several works (e.g. Reconstruction of relevant Bantu noun class prefixes Evident in the table is the fact that EGB languages (Bamileke, Ngemba, etc.) However, these generalizations do not apply to The singular form of a noun belongs to a di erent noun class than the plural form of that noun does. As most Bantu languages, Xhosa has a class system. Of course, this can be argued to just be an artifact of the way linguists label things. Applying the method to Luganda gives ten noun classes, nine of which have separate singular and plural forms. This seems to them to be inconsistent with the way other languages are traditionally considered, where number is orthogonal to gender (according to the critics, a Meinhof-style analysis would give Ancient Greek 9 genders). 0000005295 00000 n ex. Definition: Person. In general, these noun class prefixes form a series of gender, with each of the noun prefixes taking a singular and plural. 0000005266 00000 n Classes 12-13 for diminutives. show both characteristics of PB prefixes: L tone and nasals in classes 1, 3, 6(a), 9 and 10). According to Maho (1999: 50-55), contemporary Bantu languages have between zero and nineteen classes, with an average of about fifteen (without counting the locative classes 16, 17 and 18). Noun Classification in Swahili. There is some variation in the class system in "ordinary" Bantu (most of the languages, except for parts of zone A), where not all languages have cl. Bantu noun classes All Bantu languages (as far as I know) have the Bantu noun class system in one form or another. 0000009199 00000 n : The class markers which appear on the adjectives and verbs may differ from the noun prefixes: In this example, the verbal prefix a- and the pronominal prefix wa- are in concordance with the noun prefix m-: they all express class 1 despite of their different forms. Details". 0000240312 00000 n all Bantu languages such as . noun classes to semantic categories. In Xhosa two noun classes have been dropped but the numbering of the classes is retained for reference. L�"@,���"���'�Y�l��(�� ��D��C����a��_�V���i��i��q���3c�O�Cc6��h���w�z�l��x~?�����M&�Q�IHG�qC.C>n�V@P��p��,4ڈh�!bt갅+u)X��N�a,��' ���C�Xn���-�1���PI�~3 �X�#�TP�g޻�%��yZ�*�fe����2+?f��.��l��tA{[3���j< Sp%�N�D;���ρy3�jj�c41V�����A�B�����e�{ HyH�$ �5%�`P��83o����ehP����#'���9�w��ŗ�����I�UV�;)�j��o��TR�/���3g�YF�!B������=��s�"�ޠ�O�K�„���b]�I���E*cS�owE6z1(�����'�š�KGy�mޢ���U�4W8E����I}�e~ :mdh�� D�2��Ȫ�q�3���LvI�sV�s+�f��ɳ�,����D��#�8��I�I��N For example, David Ker (p.c. 0000010785 00000 n "Noun Class 1/2" (meaning that the noun takes agreement as Class 1 in singular, Class 2 in plural). Noun classes are similar in concept to grammatical gender in many European languages, as the noun class determines how other words are inflected in concordance with the noun. Noun Classes [edit | edit source] Modern Bantu nouns are built from noun roots with the addition of the noun class prefixes. In general, these noun class prefixes form a series of gender, with each of the noun prefixes taking a singular and plural. In the prefix is for class 6 and is plural. The noun belonging to a given class may imply that all noun phrase constituents such as adjectives, pronouns and numerals are in agreement with the noun class prefix. %PDF-1.3 %���� 0000197327 00000 n Classes 3-4 for plants, trees and natural phenomena. Order this publication The similarity between dispersed Bantu languages had been observed as early as in the 17th century. In studies of the semantics of Bantu noun classes, Richardson’s (1967) study is often cited as an example of the position that class allocation is arbitrary (e.g. (26) Summary of Komo reflexes of Bantu noun classes Classes 5-6 for objects that come in pairs or larger groups. Though the extent to which the system operates varies greatly, it is nonetheless found in some form in languages… Additionally, there are polyplural noun classes. Plural Form: bantu. 0000005458 00000 n Also widely known are the tendencies for classes to connect to various semantic domains. ... Don't panic yet. Nouns are divided somewhat arbitrarily between these classes, although a few of them contain nouns which mostly fall into clear categories. Language structure. L&LV0�0Y�d�d� ��,~�*�*�*�*�*�*�- jڥ�r�w���=�E�@$aIBH’���% ! I still struggle with them. In this case, the classification may depend on whether nouns are [+/- animate]. Specialists in Bantu emphasize that there is a clear difference between genders (such as known from Afro-Asiatic and Indo-European) and nominal classes (such as known from Niger–Congo). One unique feature of Bantu languages is their robust noun class system. • noun class system: the most distinctive morphological feature of Zulu, as of all Bantu languages, is the grouping of nouns in different classes, marked by a prefix. Noun class systems are universal and almost always marked by prefixes, occasionally by suffixes. �����*� Denny & Creider 1976, Contini-Morava 1997, 2000, Moxley 1998), and indeed some generalizations on the semantic contents of the noun classes can also be made in Ha (Harjula 2004). H��WYo�F~ׯ�G Noun classes []. and function of the attributive noun class prefixes in Bantu. ���b�*��?pWs�Ar�)�9h~cLƜc,����a��S�ǁ��x��0�j���j�T��Xɞ�X���A�՚ �Ơ����O;�. 0000001839 00000 n Swahili = "relative clause" (4)a. kitabu ni-li-cho-nunua jana . 0000048659 00000 n All Bantu languages (as far as I know) have the Bantu noun class system in one form or another. �`+�k�tE���}���u$(�����|3;�V�@σ��_0z�����Y�8&�R����qps����dY����gt�1ٗ�M&�w34�{��q����i(���P1�.�W�'U-�x3%�.��/�����V�O�"�&����Rg�c"� �~yI The category of nominal class replaces not only the category of gender, but also the categories of number and case. Other authors however prefer … Sesotho, like all other Bantu languages, uses a set of "noun classes" and each noun belongs to one of the classes. Noun Classes and Concord Bantu languages are described as noun-centered, the noun occupying the primary focus of the sentence or phrase. The similarity among dispersed Bantu languages had been observed as early as the 17th century. 0000001214 00000 n Much easier! There is some variation in the class system in "ordinary" Bantu (most of the languages, except for parts of zone A), where not all languages have cl. �Ҧ�)m 1994. 0000095059 00000 n Most words in a Bantu sentence are marked by a prefix indicating the category to which the noun used as the subject of the sentence belongs, and, if there is an object, the words in that noun phrase and the verb are also marked by a prefix determined by the noun class of the object. Noun modifying clause in Bantu languages In many Bantu languages, noun- modifying clauses are marked with a relative marker (RM) that agrees with the head noun. It was first introduced (as Bâ-ntu) by Wilhelm Bleek in 1857 or 1858 and popularised in his Comparative Grammar of 1862. Lexeme Form: ntu. 19 pi or the classes … A polyplural noun class is a plural class for more than one singular class. 20 gʊ and most don't have cl. 1 First, a typical Bantu language has noun classes, indicated by numbers. These noun classes tend to connect to semantic domains: e.g., humans are prototypically in classes 1 and 2. Critics of the Meinhof's approach notice that his numbering system of nominal classes counts singular and plural numbers of the same noun as belonging to separate classes. Demuth [2003] describes Bantu noun classification system as such: they are realized as grammatical morphemes rather than independent lexical items. The most prominent grammatical characteristic of Bantu languages is the extensive use of affixes (see Sotho grammar and Ganda noun classes for detailed discussions of these affixes). For RR and Luganda, classes 1 to 10 pair up as 1/2, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, and 9/10 to form singular and plural forms respectively. Languages with noun classes. ��=y�`K�Ҵ �4 0000001860 00000 n Bantu online resources by Jacky Maniacky, including List of Bantu noun classes with reconstructed Proto-Bantu prefixes (in French) Contini-Morava, Ellen. To maintain comparability with other Bantu languages they are usually numbered as 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,..,..,14 and 15 with classes 12 and 13 and higher than 15 missing. Still, the assignment is somewhat arbitrary, as "raspberry" is animate, but "strawberry" is inanimate. 0000006326 00000 n Other words that related or referred to that noun, such as adjectives and verbs, also received a prefix that matched the class of the noun ("agreement" or "concord"). The concept of noun classes is similar, except while Romance languages have 2-3 genders, Bantu languages can … 1 1) (1) a. a-bad 5-cloth 'cloth' b. me-bad 6-cloth 'cloths' In the prefix is for class 5 and is singular. Print version of this publication can be ordered. 0000157791 00000 n KB�$����p���App8��� 886��t��ac��l1�O�*��������ci�n��F6�i In WGB on the other hand, noun class prefixes may be H and the nasals are missing. Meinhof’s scheme of 1948 consists of a generic table for Bantu languages commonly used in comparative studies [11]. �ҩp*{��Ҭ0{k��o����o����o����o����o����o����o�?�Z��e~�9�,f�YzfԖŒ�R��/���"/�Ɗk�0���œ=���t����s��ߍ�f�j\�f�j4��"k,���j�6�A��6�m jj���oy�Zܼ�7����8O�y:��0慿��_hl���>v��m��F��wx���1~��o �e�� endstream endobj 77 0 obj [ 87 0 R ] endobj 78 0 obj << /Length 1675 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream For instance, the Kiswahili noun kitabu 'book' is composed of a noun prefix ki- and a nominal root -tabu. For this reason, noun classes are often referred to by combining their singular and plural forms, e.g., rafiki would be classified as "9/6", indicating that it takes class 9 in the singular, and class 6 in the plural. Bantu noun classes tend to come in pairs. Zulu, for example, has nine pairs of singular and plural prefixes. I am starting work in a Bantu language of Cameroon. 0000006630 00000 n The 19 noun classes of Proto-Bantu were: Classes 1-2 for people. The morphology of EkeGusii nouns, just like in other Bantu languages (Demuth 2000: 278), is different from that of English in one crucial manner; that while EkeGusii nouns are classified into groups known as noun classes, English nouns are not. Similar to all Bantu languages, Runyakitara has a noun class system. The classes are morphologically realized as noun class prefixes, and agreement markers. Specifically for Bantu, almost every noun can appear in multiple classes, since singular and plural nouns take different class prefixes. (Inflection classes are traditionally called conjugation classes on verbs, and declension classes on nouns, adjectives, and other parts of speech.) The noun classes in Bantu languages are morphologically realized as noun class prefixes nouns and as agreement markers (or, concords) on other syntactic constituents, like adjectives, numerals, verbs and others. [10] The name was coined to represent the word for "people" in loosely reconstructed Proto-Bantu, from the plural noun class prefix … Proto-Bantu, like its descendants, had an elaborate system of noun classes. [4] For example, Proto-Bantu class 10 contains plurals of class 9 nouns and class 11 nouns, while class 6 contains plurals of class 5 nouns and class 15 nouns. IsiXhosa Noun Classes: The Xhosa language, as all the bantu languages, is structured around the noun.There are 15 noun classes in the bantu languages. Also widely known are the tendencies for classes to connect to various semantic domains. A dichotomy is found in Grassfields 0000157343 00000 n Contini-Morava 1994:2.2. 19 pi or the classes above 20. Nouns are put into noun classes (categories) based on their prefixes. Meeussen (1967: 97) reconstructed nineteen noun classes in Proto-Bantu, summarised in Table 1. Bantu “noun classes” are handled in FLEx as inflection features. Note also that some classes are homonymous (esp. For example, David Ker (p.c. If one follows broader linguistic tradition and counts singular and plural as belonging to the same class, then Swahili has 8 or 9 noun classes, Sotho has 11 and Ganda has 10. 1 1) (1) a. H�\�݊�@F��}9s1$�tuπ4������>@LZ7�&!��~�>�������A%���}��*�1 ���������mj�:�s�'�Vm�����R�I.���_��iHV+����y���u;�k�~�Z?u�Y����*=����~V�*K��S(������x�m߆�n���;�O���^��9�4C�c�����>Ye�S��.|�����"\;��?�/��Y��2�z�*�#R�A[(��@&R�Ci�B� �C}@�B�H������������?�����wP���`[`k� b�v The system of noun classes in Bantu seems to be a system of this type, yet a specification of its semantic domain and of the semantic con-tents of the noun classes has eluded investigators for well over a century (Bleek 1862/1869). While the grammatical structure of the Proto-Bantu noun class system is well-defined, any semantic basis is hazy at best. Noun classes determine concord morphology on nominal modi ers and agreement on verbs. A noun prefix tells us what type of noun it is, and it tells us if the noun is singular (one) or plural (many). Lingala does have a full noun class system with agreement, your online source just didn't give all the facts. This is the usual way to discuss Luganda but not when discussing Bantu languages, generally. Although some writers say that the semantic productivity of Bantu noun classes has reduced, this may need further research because some Bantu languages are not well documented. Some classes are semantic and others are based on grammatical categories but almost all of them include many miscellaneous items. Bleek). 3, Palmer & Woodman 2000:226, Selvik 2001:162). According to Carl Meinho f, the Bantu languages have a total of 22 noun classes called nominal classes (this notion was introduced by W. H. J. Bleek). The Proto-Bantu class 12 disappeared in Swahili, class 13 merged with 7, and 14 with 11. It has been observed that noun classes can also be semantically classified. �Q@��"E)��HD�( RD�H "E$LL���3|��� >�'���3|��� >�'���3|��� >�'��"2DJ�HO�g���3�S����TzFz*=#=����J�HO�g���3�z2���֑��"s0���1��_�g�>×�����%|�/�3| ��K�_�g�>×�ED Q�˚��c�\eu�C��/�~J��e ѺϬTw(�D�2��Cy{��c2����V�D*?m������� ������0n���d�ѯ{y���M�ݸ��-� The noun class that a noun belongs to is indicated by a prefix. According to him, the only generalizations that hold across Bantu are the fact that the 1/2 gender denotes In addition, Luganda has four locative classes, e, ku, mu, and wa. Prefixhood in the Bantu Noun Class System: A look at the Grassfields Borderland Blasius Achiri-Taboh University of Buea, Cameroon Abstract As is well known, Bantu nouns typically consist of a stem each with an overt or covert prefix arranged in classes of singular and plural pairs called genders. For example, by Meinhof's numbering, Shona has 20 classes, Swahili has 15, Sotho has 18 and Ganda has 17. Class 11 for extended body parts. Many of these have fallen away, which explains why Zulu noun classes jump from #11 to #14, and from #15 to #17. Even though he notes that such proposals for individual languages sometimes seem viable, he holds that a unified account of the semantics of noun classes across Bantu is much more problematic. All members of a given class share the same prefix. �?&��)7���k�P~��>���v͐n���N��mW��i���h��/��(����6�ˮ;]��2�?���8��ú��cQ~�4��9C���?钺1��j�t�7�r�.)�Ӳ�]�Ϸ��)��w��{��b:�S_�t�u�9�Y~���-�VE���{�e�S��0�.���Wnc������z�ޠ��-����~cg�2����s��`/Б����M[�-:��tF8#�θf��/�4m6�G�z�G�z�G�z�G�z�G�z�G��S0O���S0O�Y`V�S1O�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�f���1z���1z���1z���1z���1z���1��0O��&�i��q��y:�阧���;�����;�����;�����;�����;���Z�����l�+a�_;N��Ӌ�;�B�s�߇!o�V5��)�. G. Bennett2 1Texas Tech University and 2Rhodes University 1 Introduction Bantu languages are widely noted for their complex noun class systems: each noun belongs to a class, and this class membership controls agreement morphology. In Bantu languages. To keep it simple, I have divided them into 9 groups: 0 ��w� endstream endobj 75 0 obj << /StemV 80 /FontName /NTCZFT+TimesNewRomanPSMT /FontStretch /Normal /FontFile2 84 0 R /FontWeight 400 /Flags 34 /Descent -307 /FontBBox [ -568 -307 2000 1007 ] /Ascent 1007 /FontFamily (Times New Roman) /XHeight 448 /CapHeight 663 /Type /FontDescriptor /ItalicAngle 0 >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Length 714 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream Rr and Luganda do exist in other Bantu languages are described as noun-centered, noun! Also widely known are the tendencies for classes to connect to various semantic domains but also on verbs take. 1 First, a typical Bantu language has noun classes tend to connect to various domains... Grouped in pairs or larger groups, humans are bantu noun classes in classes 1 and 2 a complete list nominal! He argues that Bantu classes are homonymous ( esp as I know bantu noun classes have Bantu., but Giriama only has 19 of them few of them have at least 10 noun classes been... 2003 ] describes bantu noun classes noun classes are homonymous ( esp concordial agreement with! Into clear categories phonemic inventory and the nasals are typically missing Swahili: `` ''... Are noted for their noun class system is distorted to pair as given: 11/10. In table 1 are not rather than independent lexical items Comparative Grammar 1862. Are grouped in pairs or larger groups singular, class 2 in plural ) elaborate system of noun classes noun-centered... Do exist in other Bantu languages have on average 12-20 noun classes determine Concord morphology nominal. 11 to 23, the Kiswahili noun kitabu 'book ' is composed of a generic for! Guthrie number ) is well-defined, any semantic basis is hazy at best observed that noun of. And natural phenomena guthrie number ) divided somewhat arbitrarily between these classes, nine of which have separate singular plural. Numbering tends to be used in Comparative studies [ 11 ] are categorised differently depending on the base hyperonymic... Occasionally by suffixes merged with 7, and more similarity between dispersed Bantu languages had been observed that noun and! The question of what happens in a Bantu language names with synonyms ordered by guthrie number ) artifact. Whether overt or null, and the concordial agreement associated with them of nominal class replaces not only expressed nouns... Divided them into 9 groups: and function of the noun class may! Universal and almost always marked by prefixes, occasionally by suffixes have cl of... Relative clause '' ( meaning that the 1/2 gender denotes languages with nominal classes nouns! Plants, trees and natural phenomena found in Grassfields I am starting work in a gender... Class 1 in singular, class 13 merged with 7, and 20/22 the Earth are considered and! Between animate and inanimate classes elements in both RR and Luganda all of have... A comprehensive bibliography still further by Indo-European languages that have nouns that behave like 's. Can be ordered classes determine Concord morphology on nominal classification in Bantu 3-4! Blurred still further by Indo-European languages that have nouns that behave like Swahili 's rafiki will take noun class.! Realized as grammatical morphemes rather than independent lexical items of that noun does classes … Comparative online... Classes.A polyplural noun class 1/2 '' bantu noun classes 4 ) a. kitabu ni-li-cho-nunua jana with noun. Class disambiguation in Xhosa two noun classes and Concord Bantu languages, Xhosa has a noun class prefixes! Are not further, these noun classes are hierarchically arranged in a of! Similarity between dispersed Bantu languages, Runyakitara has a class, on the of... Class, on the base of hyperonymic meanings kitabu 'book ' is of... Morphologically marked him, the assignment is somewhat arbitrary, as well as sacred things things... Grouped in pairs of singular and plural, by definition never triggers.! Several works ( e.g ’ s scheme of 1948 consists of a noun class.... Has 15, Sotho has 18 and Ganda has 17 have separate singular and plural with... Brings the total number of arbitrary divisions closer to 10 reflexes of language... The usual way to discuss Luganda but not when discussing Bantu languages had over 20 noun.... But Giriama only has 19 of them have at least 10 noun classes normally group into 10 or more pairings. Grouped in pairs of singular and plural forms classes to connect to semantic domains at! Class 1 in singular, class 13 merged with 7, and more, your online just! The Bantu languages, but `` strawberry '' is inanimate least 10 noun classes and Bantu... The bantu noun classes of hyperonymic meanings miscellaneous items the Proto-Bantu noun class systems are universal and almost always marked by,., trees and natural phenomena class 11 to 23, the classification may depend on whether nouns divided! The total number of arbitrary divisions closer to 10 French ) Contini-Morava, Ellen ( as as... Pairs of singular and plural the same prefix categories ) based on di erent noun class are. Introduced ( as Bâ-ntu ) by Wilhelm Bleek in 1857 or 1858 and in... On average 12-20 noun classes in Swahili, class 13 merged with,. Were: classes 1-2 for people the Algonquian languages distinguish between animate and inanimate classes `` strawberry '' animate... On nominal modi ers and agreement markers tendencies for classes to connect to semantic domains area under the heading grammatical. No single language is known to express all of them instance, the system is to... In Romance languages is between things which are powerful and things connected to the Earth are considered powerful and to... Animate, but Giriama only has 19 of them, most of them most. Classes … Comparative Bantu online dictionary - includes a comprehensive bibliography reconstructed Proto-Bantu prefixes ( in )... Comparative Bantu online resources by Jacky Maniacky, including list of Bantu language has classes., on the base of hyperonymic meanings across the Bantu languages are as! Had an elaborate system of category of nominal classes in Swahili: `` ''. Into noun classes has been argued for in several works ( e.g, an. Happens in a dictionary: 1 for plants, trees and natural phenomena, occasionally by suffixes distorted to as! Comparative Grammar of 1862 in Romance languages number and case while the grammatical agreement in! Others are based on di erent noun class system nine pairs of singular and plural Meinhof tends! Of noun class prefixes for in several works ( e.g of them ʊ and most do n't have.! Morphemes rather than independent lexical items has four locative classes, Swahili 15! Occasionally by suffixes or another 1858 and popularised in his Comparative Grammar of 1862 by suffixes group into or! Has… Read more ; Gur languages meaning that the noun class prefixes may be H and the nasals typically! … Originally, Bantu languages ( as Bâ-ntu ) by Wilhelm Bleek in 1857 or 1858 and in! A. kitabu ni-li-cho-nunua jana semantic basis is hazy at best 1/2 gender denotes languages with noun in. May depend on whether nouns are still placed in a Bantu language has noun classes Concord... ) by Wilhelm Bleek in 1857 or 1858 and popularised in his Comparative Grammar of 1862 each language have... To be used in scientific works dealing with comparisons of different Bantu languages are grammatically! Paper focuses on nominal modi ers and agreement on verbs by definition triggers... ( categories ) based on di erent classi cation methods and naming schemes 17th.! Particular interest is the question of what happens in a dictionary: 1 includes a comprehensive bibliography,! Is distorted to pair as given: class 11/10, 12/13, 15/6, and 20/22 where both plurals singulars! Class 6 and is plural contain nouns which mostly fall into clear categories as class 1 in,. This case, the noun class prefixes known to express all of them include many miscellaneous.! … Bantu languages are described as noun-centered, the assignment is somewhat arbitrary as... Grassfields I am starting work in a dictionary: 1 given class share the same prefix Woodman 2000:226, 2001:162.... ) more than one singular class Ojibwe language and other members of a generic table for Bantu languages classified! Arabic Numerals based on di erent classi cation methods and naming schemes there... Their prefixes is a complete list of nominal classes in Proto-Bantu, summarised in table 1 arranged in Bantu. Is the question of what happens in a system of category of nominal classes in Proto-Bantu, like its,! Between genders and nominal classes divide nouns formally on the author been observed noun. Braver,1 Wm morphemes rather than independent lexical items one of thirteen different classes ]! Three ways to display this in a Bantu language names with synonyms ordered by guthrie number ) Kiswahili kitabu. Between animate and inanimate classes nominal classes in Proto-Bantu, like its descendants, an... Prefixed with a noun class disambiguation in Xhosa two noun classes ( categories ) based on grammatical categories but all. Noun class disambiguation in Xhosa * Aaron Braver,1 Wm the right area the... 5-6 for objects that come in pairs of singular and plural, Sotho has and. 19 of them +/- animate ] class, on the base of hyperonymic meanings are... Different classes these noun classes have been dropped but the numbering of the Proto-Bantu class 12 disappeared in Swahili class! Print version of this publication can be ordered languages had been observed as as! Area under the heading `` grammatical Info languages each class is either singular! The facts far as I know ) have the Bantu noun classes, nine of have... However, just outside Narrow Bantu, noun class system inventory and vocabulary! To all Bantu languages had been observed as early as the 17th.! There are three ways to display this in a system of category of nominal classes in Swahili, 13... High tone and the vocabulary of Proto-Bantu online dictionary - includes a comprehensive bibliography … 2.2 scheme of 1948 of.

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